Recourse loan means that the lender may collect the outstanding loan balance, even after seizing and selling the collateral. Non-recourse means the lender only gets up to the value of the collateral and the rest of the outstanding balance is wiped out. The outstanding balance after applying sale proceeds from collateral, is called the deficiency. The lender has two years from date of foreclosure sale to file suit to collect any deficiency.
Some states don’t allow recourse loans at all and are therefore called non-recourse states. Texas is generally a recourse state. Commercial loans are all recourse loans, unless specifically negotiated as non-recourse. Purchase Money Loans have recourse but Home Equity loans and Reverse Mortgages have no recourse unless such loans were obtained by fraud. Purchase Money Loans are those loans used to actually buy the property.
Many homeowners have two mortgages on their home – a first and a second mortgage. Lenders rarely pursue deficiencies on the first mortgage unless the deficiency is a sizable amount. Following foreclosure by the first mortgage lender, second mortgage lenders will sometimes pursue a deficiency judgment.
In a deficiency lawsuit, the borrower/ homeowner has the right to argue that the property was sold for less than the Fair Market Value. If able to prove this to the court, the deficiency amount will be adjusted by applying the appropriate Fair Market Value to the then existing loan balance (as at the time of the foreclosure sale.) If successful, this will reduce the overall deficiency amount.